1. Early Jordanian carriers
When Jordan gained independence in 1946, he wanted to increase his identity by establishing his own airline, which on January 1 of that year became known as Arab Airvais. Inaugurating its service to Beirut, it expanded its wings to Baghdad and Cairo by August 1947, with the British Overseas Airvais Corporation (BOAC) becoming its principal investor.
Developing at Arab Airvais Jerusalem, Limited, it operated the Havilland Rapides twin-engine fleet from Jerusalem itself to Beirut and Cairo six years later, but eventually added Aden, Amman, Baghdad and Jeddah. However, it was not the only carrier in the region.
The Air Jordan Company, founded in 1950 by NJ Ismail Bilbeisi Fasha, began service from Amman with Airspeed Consuls, but a 1953 cash infusion by Trans Ocean Airlines, an unscheduled carrier operating charter and contract flights, allowed it to modernize its fleet. with 21 Douglas DC-3s passengers. They eventually linked Aman to Kabul via Kuwait and Kandahar.
Feeling what has now become its competitor, Arab Airvais Jerusalem has equally acquired this type of aircraft.
Passing for most of the same passenger base but facing competition from other airlines in the Middle East, they chose to merge and form Air Jordan from the Holy Land.
Originally working on two Convair CV-240s leased from Trans Ocean, in 1960 she bought a DC-4, with which she could serve longer routes, such as the one to Rome from her Aman Center. Despite promises to be offered this larger four-engine aircraft, the newly launched airline was forced to cease operations on September 1 the following year when its license was revoked.
It was only a month before the successors were established – in this case, Jordan Airvais, which was jointly owned by private interests (40 percent), the Jordanian government (25 percent) and the Middle East airline (also 25 percent), the last one provided three leased turboprop Vickers V.700 Viscounts and aircraft crews. His reign was equally short.
2. Flag bearer
Wanting to create the ultimate international airline, Jordan's King Hussein, himself a pilot, asked Ali Ghandour, then vice president of Lebanon International Airvais, to devise plans for a flag carrier, which, according to the king himself, should serves as "… a national carrier that will be our Goodwill Ambassador worldwide and a bridge through which we exchange culture, civilization, commerce, technology, friendship and a better understanding with the rest of the world."
Named after its eldest daughter, the nascent company is baptized Alia Roial Jordanian Airlines. Although its structure was only completed on December 8, 1963, the king issued another additional request – namely, to get into the air within a week.
Achieving what could only be considered an impossible goal, Ghandour was able to transform the plans into planes, acquiring two 207-leased Handlei Page Heralds leased from the Royal Jordanian Air Force and one Douglas DC-7C, which opened an Aman service. in Beirut on 15 December. Cairo and Kuwait were added next week, with another DC-7 allowing it to serve Jeddah.
The reciprocating engines subsequently yielded to purebred engines, procuring the Sud-Aviation SE.210-10R caravel, the first of which was delivered on July 29, 1965, and the type facilitated rapid, over-the-time service to Europe, mainly Rome and Paris.
Yet, ever battling adversity and obstacles, he again faced the enemy. Taking control of Jerusalem two years later, in June, Israel immediately pulled the plug on the country's two most important resources – tourism and agriculture, significantly reducing the demand for new airline services, resulting in low aircraft load factors.
During this latest crisis, the Jordans discovered a third resource – namely, themselves – and only resolutely and devotedly, Alia remained restrained. The subsequent acquisition of the state gave him much needed financial support.
Successfully navigating the last turbulence, he marked his entry into the 1970s by acquiring his first long-range jet aircraft, receiving the first of two Boeing 707-320Cs on January 19 of the following year, which facilitated route expansion, specifically to Karachi in the east and Madrid. , Casablanca and Copenhagen in the west.
The joint, albeit brief, service was also run from Karachi to East Africa with Pakistan International Airlines (PIA).
The 707 was just the first of several Boeing types acquired. For example, two 720B models, obtained in 1972 for the mid-range and lower-density sectors, while three 727-200 Advanced tri-jets were purchased for short- to medium-range operations. Equipped with a more flexible and economical fleet, it could expand within the region and into the European continent.
Going into a broad era, Alia received the first of two Boeing 747-200Bs on December 15, 1976, which allowed the transatlantic service to be launched from Amman to New York and Houston via Vienna or Amsterdam in July of the following year, the first Arab carrier to do so. It became the first of two broadband types used.
Departing from its Boeing fleet, it ordered six Lockheed L-1011-500s. Entering service in October 1981 between Amman and London-Heathrow, the three-engine type allowed the carrier to use wide-ranging European destinations and several destinations in the Middle East, such as those in the Gulf States, for the first time.
Complementing his 747, he operated the Amman-Vienna / Amsterdam-New York lines on certain days as well as the newly opened line to Los Angeles with a stopover in Chicago. The JFK sector was also upgraded to non-stop status and some flights operated through Montreal.
By 1982, it operated seven 707-320Cs, one 720-030B, six 727-200 Advanceds, three 747-200Bs, two of which were in a combined configuration with major cargo loading capabilities and two L-1011-500s.
After pulling the narrow four-engine body, by 1985 its fleet had focused on the 747 for long-haul, high-density, high-density, TriStar 500 for mid- to long-range, medium-density segments, and 727 for short, mid-range, low-density sectors.
December 15, 1986 marked several milestones: the Jordanian flag ship celebrated its tenth anniversary of service in the Middle East and the United States and its silver anniversary, the fourth century, marking the occasion with a new corporate image and name, the latest changes from Ali to, simply, Roial Jordanian Airlines, to emphasize its identity.
"A new corporate name," said Ali Ghandour, its Board Chairman and CEO, "embodies our sense of heritage, as well as our sense of destiny, our achievements and aspirations, and throughout the process, the Royal Liaison we maintain from the outset is identified, distinguished and recognized.
"Last but not least," he concluded, "I want to emphasize that we did not seek change for our own sake, but to show ourselves and the world that we are progressive in our views, determined in our efforts to move forward and confident, and full of hope. in the light of the future. "
The Royal Jordanian Route System, as of January 1, 1987, consisted of 41 cities in 34 countries on four continents.
Of these, three were long-range North Atlantic routes, including the Amman-Vienna-New York, Amman-Amsterdam-New York and Amman-Vienna-Chicago-Los Angeles sectors, and two were the Far Eastern, including Amman-Bangkok and Aman-Kuala Lumpur -Singapore.
Two North African routes were established, from Aman to Tripoli and from Aman to Tunisia and Casablanca, while one destination served in the former Soviet Union, Moscow.
European destinations include Amsterdam, Athens, Belgrade, Brussels, Bucharest, Copenhagen, Frankfurt, Geneva, Istanbul, Larnaca, London, Madrid, Paris-Orly, Rome and Vienna.
Not surprisingly, heavy concentrations in the Middle East included Abu Dhabi, Amman, Baghdad, Bahrain, Cairo, Damascus, Dhahran, Doha, Dubai, Jeddah, Karachi, Kuwait, Muscat, Riyadh and Sana'a.
Her only domestic sector was the one between the center and Aqaba.
Two joint services were also operated – one for Beirut with the Middle Eastern Airline and East Berlin with Interflug.
During the five-year period from 1979 to 1983, the annual number of passengers carried included: 1979: 915 000; 1980: 1,100,000; 1981: 1,440,000; 1982: 1,667,273; and 1983: 1,457,334.
In addition to the airline itself, Roial Jordanian has also counted several subsidiaries in the country and country in its portfolio.
Of the first was Arab Air Cargo. The successful Jordanian World Airvais, which was itself established in 1974, was established in March 1982 as a joint Jordanian-Iraqi enterprise and opened cargo transportation on May 1 the following year with two 707-320Cs in cargo configuration.
A member of the Arab Aviation Organization (AACO) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), it has flown to cities such as Amman, Amsterdam, Baghdad, Brussels, Dubai, Larnaca, London and Rome. In 1985, six hundred and twelve flights were made, during which 4,521 hours of revenue were passed and 21,166 tons of cargo were carried, netting $ 16.6 million.
The Arab Wings, its second subsidiary, provided fast on-demand charter aircraft service to remote and inaccessible parts of the Middle East and was the only operation of its kind in the region at the time. Jointly funded by the Government of Oman (one-third) and the Royal Jordanian (two-thirds), it opened the service in May 1975 and operated two passenger Gates Learjet 35s and one eight-passenger Rockvell Sabreliner 75A from Amman and Muscat Base.
Over the three-year period 1981-1983, it carried 1,636, 2,116 and 1,390 passengers.
A separate branch, the Arab Wings Flight Infirmary (AVFA), provided aeromedical service and first ascended to the skies in 1978.
Sierra Leone Airlines, its third subsidiary, was formed in 1982 to succeed the Sierra Leone Airvais, founded in 1958 and opened service that November from Freetown, Sierra Leone, London, with joint ownership of Roial Jordanian (20 %), private interests (20 percent) and the government of Sierra Leone (60 percent).
Subsequent expansion has resulted in the opening of international services from Freetown-Lungi to Abidjan (Ivory Coast), Accra (Ghana), Dakar (Senegal), Lagos (Nigeria), Las Palmas (Canary Islands), London, Monrovia (Liberia) and Paris, whilst are domestic flights, based in Freetown-Hastings, connecting the airport with Bonthe, Kenem and Iangem, all with one 707-320, one 720 and two Britten-Norman Trislanders. Later CASA C-212-200 Aviocars were replaced.
In addition to these affiliates, Roial Jordanian also had several ground floor. Among them was the Kueen Alia International Airport (KAIA), which opened on May 25, 1983 and contained two interconnected terminals with 12 gates and could carry up to five million passengers annually.
The catering service, which was able to prepare 20,000 daily meals for catering purposes during the summer, terminal terminals, snack bars and cafeterias with staff, operated the 315-room four-story Alia Gatevai Hotel, which opened in 1985 and was used by transit travelers and aircraft crews. He also oversaw duty-free shops.
The Roial Jordanian Training Center is divided into the Technical Training Institute and the Trade and Management Center.
The IATA consisted of civilian and military branches, the Royal Jordanian Aviation Academy, another subsidiary, the IATA named the Middle East Regional Technical Center in 1985.
Several other issues included the Kueen Noor Civil Aviation Institute; Arab Air Services, which was an engineering consultancy that assisted in the design and construction of the airport itself between 1979 and 1983; Royal Jordanian Folklore Group; Alia Art Gallery; and Roial Tours.
4. RJ Today
The modernization of the fleet marked the last decade of the history of the Royal Jordanian 20th Century and heralded the transition of fidelity from long-standing Boeing and Lockheed products to Airbus Industrie aircraft, the first of which was the A-310-300.
Powered by two high-pass turbo fans and operated by a crew of two for two, it replaced 727s on routes where demand exceeded its capacity or proved too thin for the L-1011s, and yet offered the comfort of a wide-bodied two-seater. Because of its range capability, it even managed the transatlantic Jordanian-US sectors, especially during periods of reduced demand.
These, however, flew primarily to other Airbus fleets, the four-engine A-340-200, which eventually replaced both the 747s and the TriStars.
Replacements of the Bonafide 727, in the regional, middle eastern, north African and European segment, were formed as a two-cycle, narrow body of the A-319, A-320 and A-321 families, while short and regional routes were another type. the double class configured the Embraer E-175 and E-195, which received 72 and 100 passengers respectively. Both fit well into the 45-minute leap between the capital and the red sea of Aqaba.
Accepted as a member of the Onevorld Alliance in 2007, Roial Jordanian continued to upgrade its long-range fleet, acquiring 233,000 kg A-330-200s configured for 24 Crovn and 259 economy seats between 2010 and 2011 and 227,930 kg 787-8 Dreamliners, or accommodation between 24 and 247 passengers between August and November 2014. The A-310s were occasionally converted to freighter ships with the main cargo door open and the A-340, due to economical four-engine fuel economy, was completely removed from use.
Set on the threshold of its golden jubilee on December 15, 2012, Roial Jordanian unveiled the fiftieth anniversary of a flight on one of its spacecraft, re-establishing the first scheduled flight time for Beirut.
After fighting obstacles and regional conflicts, he served as a vital contributor to the country’s culture and economy. With little natural resources, and its agriculture and tourism once locked in the occupied West Bank, it served as an air bridge to the rest of the world, becoming one of the primary sources of land for that matter as well. The reason why connecting travelers is crucial to their existence. As a result, it has largely served as a foundation upon which the country itself depended.
Commenting on the carrier's history during the Golden Jubilee ceremony held at the Kueen Alia International Airport in December 2012, Chairman of the Board Nasser Lozi said, "When His Majesty King Hussein launched Ali as RJ to be named 15 On December 19, 1963, he wanted to be the national carrier of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan with the aim of contributing to the advancement of Jordan and promoting interaction with other cultures and establishing relationships with other nations … (Today) we are proud to be a national carrier of ji connects Jordan and the Levant to the world. "
Referring to its growth, which increased the number of annual travelers from 87,000 in 1964 to more than 3.3 million in 2012, President and CEO Amer Hadidi said, “Roial Jordanian has been a pioneer in establishing a solid foundation for the industry local and regional. "
Operating three E-175s, five E-195s, four A-319-100s, six A-320-200s, two A-321-200s, three A-330-200s and five 787-8s by the end of 2014, Royal Jordan has served 54 destinations on four continents and seemed well-profiled to continue the mission established by its founder.